Substance abuse is when your child keeps taking a drug even though it causes a problem such as:
Showing up late or missing work or school and not caring about things that used to matter to him
Breaking rules or breaking the law
Not keeping promises, arguing, or even getting violent with other people
Doing things that are dangerous, such as driving while under the influence
Substance abuse puts kids at greater risk for accidents, violence, unplanned and unsafe sex, and suicide. If your child continues to abuse drugs, he can become dependent. When your child is dependent on drugs, he:
May need to use more and more of the drug, or use it more often to get the same effects
Loses control, which means he keeps using drugs even though he knows that it is harmful to him or others, or he can’t stop using drugs when he tries
Crave drugs so much that he spends a lot of time and energy getting drugs, using drugs, and getting over the effects
May have withdrawal symptoms when he stops using drugs
Dependence is also called addiction.
There are many kinds of drugs, both legal and illegal, that can be abused:
Marijuana, heroin, and cocaine
Inhalants, which are fumes from glue, paint thinner, or lighter fluid
Man made drugs such as methamphetamine, Ecstasy, or LSD
Nonprescription cough, cold, sleep, and diet medicines
Prescription medicines such as steroids, stimulants, sleep medicines, narcotic pain medicines, or medicines to treat anxiety
What are signs of abusing alcohol or drugs?
If your child is abusing alcohol or drugs, he or she may:
Be clumsy and have a lot of accidents
Be unable to pay attention
Become moody, angry, or worried all the time
Have headaches, stomach pain, shaking, coughing, slurred speech, staggering, or a constant runny nose
Have sudden changes in appearance like red or puffy eyes, or rapid weight changes
Have trouble sleeping or waking up and always seem tired
Lose interest in activities that used to bring pleasure such as hobbies or sports
Stop showing interest in school, have a drop in grades, or stop going to school
Stop spending time with friends or start hanging out with kids who use drugs
Some of these warning signs of drug or alcohol abuse can also be signs of other problems. Your child’s healthcare provider will examine your child and ask about symptoms to find out if there is a physical cause for his symptoms. You child may be treated for physical problems, or referred to a mental health specialist.
Some of these symptoms are normal in teenagers. If you are concerned that your child is using drugs, talk to them.
How can I help my child?
Teach your child how to make good choices about alcohol and drugs. Teach in a way that fits your child’s age and ability to understand.
If you are watching TV with your 6-year-old and cocaine is mentioned on a program, you can say, “Do you know what cocaine is? It’s a bad drug that can hurt your body.” If your child has more questions, answer them. If not, let it go. Short, simple comments, that are repeated often, will get the message across.
For your 12-year-old, you might explain what cocaine and crack look like, the different names for cocaine, and how using cocaine will change his or her brain and body. Repeat the message. Talk to your child about drugs whenever you can.
Listen to your child’s feelings and concerns, so that they feel comfortable talking with you.
Make your family position on drugs clear. For example “In our family, we don’t use drugs and children are not allowed to drink alcohol.” Set a good example. Your child is much more likely to use smoke, drink, or use drugs if you smoke, drink, or use drugs, even if you tell them not to.
Talk about what makes a good friend. Peer pressure is a big part of why kids get involved with drugs and alcohol. Help your child understand that friends who pressure them to drink or use drugs aren’t friends at all. Role-play ways for your child to say no to drugs, for example:
Say, â€œno, thanksâ€ and walk away.
Suggest something else to do, such as go play a video game.
Use humor, such as, “No thanks. I donâ€™t want to fry my brain.”
Build self-esteem. Children who feel good about themselves are much less likely to turn to drugs. Offer lots of praise for a job well done. If you need to criticize or discipline your child, talk about the action, not the child. For example, instead of saying “you should know better” try saying, “what you’re doing is not safe.” Set aside time every day to talk, play a game, or take a walk with each of your children.
People and resources in your community that can help you include your healthcare providers, therapists, support groups, mental health centers, and alcohol or substance abuse treatment programs. You may want to contact:
National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence 800-622-2255 http://ncadd.org
Developed by RelayHealth.
Pediatric Advisor 2015.1 published by RelayHealth. Last modified: 2014-11-05 Last reviewed: 2014-03-14
This content is reviewed periodically and is subject to change as new health information becomes available. The information is intended to inform and educate and is not a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional.
Substance Abuse: Recognize the Signs: References
Clinical Textbook of Addictive Disorders, Third Edition / Edition 3by Richard J. Frances, Sheldon Irvin Miller, Avram H. Mack
Clinical Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment from psychiatryonline.org
DW Brook – American Journal of Psychiatry, 2011 – Am Psychiatric Assoc
Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine: Volumes 1 and 2, 18th Edition
Dan Longo, Anthony Fauci, Dennis Kasper, Stephen Hauser, J. Jameson, Joseph Loscalzo