If your baby is born before the lungs have matured, he may develop respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). A baby with RDS has trouble breathing because the lungs tend to collapse with each breath. Most babies recover completely within the first weeks of life. Almost all babies who have RDS grow up to be healthy, normal children. RDS does not cause brain damage or long-term problems with learning, growth, or behavior.
What causes RDS?
Babies usually start making a substance called surfactant sometime between the 30th and 36th weeks of pregnancy. Surfactant helps keep the air sacs in the lungs from sticking to each other when your baby breathes after birth. RDS can happen if your baby is born without enough surfactant in the lungs. It is most common in babies born before 37 weeks.
What are the symptoms?
Symptoms may include:
Grunting sounds when breathing out
Pulling in of the chest wall when taking a breath
Flaring of the nostrils when he breathes in
Having a bluish color of the skin and lips, which means that he needs more oxygen
How is it diagnosed?
Symptoms are usually seen right after the birth. Your babyâ€™s provider will examine your baby. Tests may include:
How is it treated?
The treatment is to help your baby breathe until he outgrows the problem.
Your baby will be attached to a monitor that constantly measures oxygen level, heart rate, and breathing rate.
Your baby may be given artificial surfactant to help keep the airways open. He may also be given fluids and medicine by IV.
Your baby will be given warm, moist oxygen. Your baby may need a breathing machine for a few days or weeks.
How can I take care of my child?
Follow the full course of treatment prescribed by your childâ€™s healthcare provider. Ask your provider:
How and when you will hear your childâ€™s test results
How long it will take your child to recover
How to take care of your child at home
What symptoms or problems you should watch for and what to do if your child has them
Make sure you know when your child should come back for a checkup. Keep all appointments for provider visits or tests.
How can RDS be prevented?
If your healthcare provider thinks that your baby is going to be born early, your provider may do a test of fluid from the bag of fluid around your baby to see if your baby is making surfactant. Based on the test results, your provider may prescribe medicine that will help your baby start making more surfactant before birth.
Developed by RelayHealth.
Pediatric Advisor 2015.1 published by RelayHealth. Last modified: 2015-01-02 Last reviewed: 2014-12-31
This content is reviewed periodically and is subject to change as new health information becomes available. The information is intended to inform and educate and is not a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional.
Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Newborns: References
Saker, F. and Martin, R. (2014). Pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of respiratory distress syndrome in the Newborn. UpToDate. Retrieved 12/31/2014 from http://www.uptodate.com.