What is gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted disease or infection (also called an STD or STI). Other names for gonorrhea are clap, drip, dose, and strain.
The infection usually starts in the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine and semen out of the penis. The bacteria may also infect the throat or rectum during oral or anal sex. Gonorrhea that is not treated may spread into the bloodstream and to other parts of the body.
- It may infect the joints and cause pain and swelling (arthritis).
- It may spread to the brain and cause meningitis.
- It may infect the heart.
- It might cause death.
Also, if you have gonorrhea and then have unsafe sex with someone who has HIV, you are more likely to be infected with HIV.
What is the cause?
The infection is caused by bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It is usually passed from person to person during oral, vaginal, or anal sex.
What are the symptoms?
Many people donâ€™t have symptoms. This means you could pass the infection to your sexual partner without knowing that you are infected.
If you do have symptoms, they usually start 2 to 10 days after you were exposed to the disease. Symptoms may include:
- Thick, yellow discharge from the penis
- Burning or pain when you urinate
- Feeling like you need to urinate often
How is it diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider will ask about your symptoms and sexual and medical history and examine you. Tests may include:
- A test of fluid from the opening of the urethra, mouth, or anus
- A urine test
How is it treated?
Gonorrhea is treated with antibiotic medicine. You may need to take more than 1 antibiotic.
If only the urethra is infected, antibiotic treatment should clear up the infection in about 10 days. If it is not treated, gonorrhea can cause scarring of the urethra, trouble urinating normally, and infection of the testicles. Testicle infection can cause infertility, which means that you would not be able to get your partner pregnant.
You will be asked about your sexual partner(s). Your infection will be reported to the local health department and your sexual partner(s) will be told that they have had contact with someone who has a sexually transmitted infection. (Your name will not be given.) This will help them get prompt treatment for the infection. It can also help prevent new infections.
How can I take care of myself?
- Take your medicine for as long as your healthcare provider prescribes, even if you feel better. If you stop taking an antibiotic too soon, you may not kill all of the bacteria and you may get sick again.
- Take nonprescription pain medicine if you need it.
- Tell everyone with whom you have had sex in the last 3 months about your infection. Or you can ask the clinic staff to tell them without using your name. Your sexual contacts need to be treated even if they donâ€™t have any symptoms.
- Donâ€™t have sex until both you and your partner have finished all of the medicine and your provider says it’s OK. Then always use condoms every time you have sex.
- Ask your healthcare provider:
- How and when you will hear your test results
- If you should be tested for other STDs
- How long it will take to recover from this illness
- If there are activities you should avoid and when you can return to normal activities
- When it is safe to have sex again
- How to take care of yourself at home
- What symptoms or problems you should watch for and what to do if you have them
- Make sure you know when you should come back for a checkup. Keep all appointments for provider visits or tests.
How can I help prevent gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea can be a serious health threat to you and the people you have sex with. It can no longer be treated with many antibiotics that are usually used to treat infections. Prevention is very important.
- Use latex or polyurethane condoms during foreplay and every time you have vaginal, oral, or anal sex.
- Have just 1 sexual partner who is not sexually active with anyone else.
- If you have had sex and are worried that you may have been infected, see your healthcare provider even if you donâ€™t have symptoms.
- If you have been sexually assaulted, you may need to be treated to prevent sexually transmitted infections. You should have an exam within a few hours of the assault (and before showering or bathing) even if you donâ€™t want to press charges.
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This content is reviewed periodically and is subject to change as new health information becomes available. The information is intended to inform and educate and is not a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional.
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