A sinus headache is pain and pressure caused by your sinuses being swollen, congested with mucus, or infected. The sinuses are hollow spaces in the bones of your face and front of your skull. They connect with the nose through small openings. Like the nose, they are lined with tissue that makes mucus. Mucus drains through the small openings to the nose.
What is the cause?
The passageways from the sinuses to the nose are very narrow. When drainage of mucus from the sinuses is blocked, the sinuses get swollen and irritated. They may also become infected with bacteria, a virus, or even fungus. Allergies or irritation from pollen, mold, dust, or smoke can also cause swelling of the sinuses. Sometimes a tooth infection spreads to the sinuses.
You may be more likely to get sinus congestion and infections if you have:
Severe or untreated seasonal or year-round allergies
Injured the bones in your nose
A deformity of the nose that causes the sinuses not to drain properly
Small growths called polyps in the sinuses that partially block the sinus openings
What are the symptoms?
Symptoms may include:
Feeling of fullness or pressure in your face or head
A headache that is most painful when you first wake up in the morning or when you bend over and put your head down
Pain in your face
Aching in the upper jaw and teeth
How is it diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider will ask about your symptoms and medical history and examine you. Tests are often not needed but may include:
X-ray of your sinuses
CT scan, which uses X-rays and a computer to show detailed pictures of the sinuses
How is it treated?
Several kinds of medicine may help:
Nonprescription pain medicine, such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen may help lessen pain. Read the label and take as directed. Unless recommended by your healthcare provider, you should not take these medicines for more than 10 days.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and aspirin, may cause stomach bleeding and other problems. These risks increase with age.
Acetaminophen may cause liver damage or other problems. Unless recommended by your provider, don’t take more than 3000 milligrams (mg) in 24 hours. To make sure you donâ€™t take too much, check other medicines you take to see if they also contain acetaminophen. Ask your provider if you need to avoid drinking alcohol while taking this medicine.
Decongestants pills or nasal spray to reduce swelling in your nose and sinuses and lessen the amount of mucus. Use decongestants as directed. If you are using a nonprescription nasal-spray decongestant, generally you should not use it for more than 3 days. After 3 days it may make your symptoms worse. Ask your healthcare provider if it is OK for you to use a nasal spray decongestant longer than this.
Antihistamine tablets or a nasal spray to treat the allergies during your allergy season or, in some cases, year-round. Antihistamines block the effect of a chemical your body makes when you have an allergic reaction.
Antibiotics, if your provider thinks you might have a sinus infection.
Your head should stop hurting when the sinuses become less congested. This usually takes about 1 to 3 days after you start treatment.
How can I take care of myself?
Follow the full course of treatment prescribed by your healthcare provider. In addition:
If you are taking an antibiotic, take all of it as directed by your provider. If you stop taking the medicine when your symptoms are gone but before you have taken all of the medicine, symptoms may come back.
Donâ€™t smoke, and stay away from others who are smoking.
Put warm, moist cloths on painful areas.
If you have allergies, try to avoid the things you are allergic to, like animal dander.
Ask your healthcare provider if you should use saline nose irrigation to keep your sinuses clear.
Use a humidifier to put more moisture in the air. Avoid steam vaporizers because they can cause burns. Be sure to keep the humidifier clean, as recommended in the manufacturer’s instructions. It’s important to keep bacteria and mold from growing in the water container.
Get plenty of rest.
Drink more fluids to keep the mucus as thin as possible so your sinuses can drain more easily.
Raise the head of your bed slightly or sleep on extra pillows to help your sinuses drain.
Ask your healthcare provider:
How and when you will hear your test results
How long it will take to recover
If there are activities you should avoid and when you can return to your normal activities
How to take care of yourself at home
What symptoms or problems you should watch for and what to do if you have them
Make sure you know when you should come back for a checkup. Keep all appointments for provider visits or tests.
How can I help prevent sinus headaches?
Treat your colds and allergies promptly. Use decongestants as soon as you start having symptoms, and before you fly, travel to high altitudes, or swim in deep water.
If you smoke, try to quit. Talk to your healthcare provider about ways to quit smoking.
Developed by RelayHealth.
Adult Advisor 2015.1 published by RelayHealth. Last modified: 2014-10-22 Last reviewed: 2014-09-04
This content is reviewed periodically and is subject to change as new health information becomes available. The information is intended to inform and educate and is not a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional.