A vaginal hysterectomy is surgery to remove the uterus through the vagina. The uterus is the muscular organ at the top of the vagina. Babies develop in the uterus, and menstrual blood comes from the uterus. The type of surgery you have to remove the uterus may be one of the following:
Total hysterectomy: Surgery to remove the uterus and the cervix. The ovaries and fallopian tubes may also be removed.
Subtotal hysterectomy: Surgery to remove the top part of the uterus (called the fundus), but leave the cervix in place
Radical hysterectomy: Surgery to remove the uterus with the cervix and the tissue on the sides of the cervix and possibly part of the vagina
Some of the problems that may be treated with a hysterectomy are:
Tumors in the uterus
Constant heavy bleeding that has not been controlled with other treatments
Abnormal growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus (called endometriosis) that causes pain or bleeding that has not been controlled with other treatments
Chronic pelvic pain
A fallen (sagging) uterus
Precancerous or cancerous cells or tissue on the cervix, in the uterus, or on the lining of the inside of the uterus (called the endometrium)
How is a vaginal hysterectomy done?
Before the procedure:
Your healthcare provider will ask you to sign a consent form for a vaginal hysterectomy. The consent form will state the reason you are having the procedure, what happens during the procedure, and what you may expect afterward.
Tell your healthcare provider if you are allergic to any medicines.
Tell your healthcare provider if you are taking any medicines, including nonprescription drugs, herbal remedies, or illegal drugs (if any).
You will have a small tube (IV catheter) inserted into a vein in your hand or arm. This will allow medicine to be given directly into your blood and to give you fluids, if needed.
During the procedure:
You will be given medicines to prevent pain during your surgery. These may include:
Regional anesthesia: Numbs the lower half of your body while you remain awake
General anesthesia: Relaxes your muscles and puts you to sleep. A breathing tube is usually put in your throat when you have general anesthesia.
You may have a small tube (catheter) placed into your bladder through the urethra (the opening from the bladder to the outside of the body) to drain and measure urine from the bladder.
Your surgeon will determine the best surgery for you. Depending on the reason you need the hysterectomy, your provider may perform:
Vaginal hysterectomy: Surgery to remove the uterus through a cut in the vagina
Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy: Surgery to remove the uterus through a cut in the vagina. Your provider may use a tool called a laparoscope inserted through a small cut in the abdomen to help with the removal. A laparoscope is a thin tube with a light and tiny camera.
Lymphectomy: Surgery to remove lymph nodes near the uterus if you have cancer to check if the cancer has already spread
The top of the vagina is stitched closed so that a hole into the abdomen is not left open.
After the procedure:
You will be checked often by nursing staff.
Your blood oxygen level will be monitored by a sensor that is attached to your finger or earlobe.
Your heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature will be checked regularly.
If you have had a laparoscopic-assisted hysterectomy, there may be a dressing or surgical tape strips on your abdomen. The incision will be checked and dressings will be changed by your provider or the nursing staff as needed
Your provider may prescribe medicine to:
Treat or prevent an infection
Soften stool and reduce straining with a bowel movement
Help relieve the symptoms of menopause if your ovaries were removed
What can I do to help?
You will need to tell your healthcare team if you have new or worsening:
Abdominal cramps or pain
Heavy vaginal bleeding
Swelling, redness, or pain in your legs
Shortness of breath
Trouble emptying your bladder
Change in bowel habits, such as pain, mucus, diarrhea, constipation, or other intestinal problems
Signs of infection around your surgical wound. These include:
The area around the wound is more red or painful
The wound area is very warm to touch
You have blood, pus, or other fluid coming from the wound area
You have chills or muscle aches
Ask questions about any medicine or treatment or information that you do not understand.
How long will I be in the hospital?
How long you will need to stay in the hospital will depend on the reason you needed the hysterectomy and how well you recover. This is often 2 to 3 days after you have the procedure.
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Acute Care Advisor 2015.1 published by RelayHealth. Last modified: 2014-04-30 Last reviewed: 2014-04-15
This content is reviewed periodically and is subject to change as new health information becomes available. The information is intended to inform and educate and is not a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional.
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Townsend Jr, C. M., Beauchamp, R. D., Evers, B. M., & Mattox, K. L. (2012). Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: Expert Consult Premium Edition: Enhanced Online Features. Elsevier Health Sciences.
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